Alopecia - what is this disease? Causes, symptoms, treatment of alopecia

There are various types and forms of alopecia that can transform one into another. One of the most common types of hair loss is focal or nesting alopecia, which accounts for about 5% of all patients with dermatological diseases. The increase in the incidence of the disease and its severe forms (total alopecia) among children and young people determines the high relevance of this problem.

What is a disease?

This pathology is now very widespread. And both men and women suffer from this problem. Alopecia is a disease that can begin from any part of the body and is characterized by abrupt hair loss. The degree of development of the pathology may be different.

The disease can begin in childhood after the baby has had atopic dermatitis. In addition, there are many other reasons that can cause complete or partial baldness.

What it is?

Previously, people did not think that such a total loss of hair. It was considered the norm when people of respectful age lost their hair. However, modern trichology - the science that studies the problems of hair and their treatment - refutes this fact. Total (total) loss of vegetation all over the body indicates the presence of serious pathologies in the human body, regardless of how old it is.

Complete alopecia is most common in men over forty. In women, it manifests itself less frequently. This is due to the difference between the structure of the skin of both sexes.

In women, the follicles are located in the deeper layers of the dermis, because they are less susceptible to the negative influence of external factors. However, it happens when representatives of the fair sex lose all their hair, which gives them particularly strong psychological discomfort.

Causes of disease

Quite often the centers of baldness cover significant areas of the head, acquiring a malignant course. Depending on the affected area, this form of baldness is called subtotal, total or universal. Total alopecia in men and women is manifested by complete loss of hair on the head and in the chin, eyelashes and eyebrows area within 2-3 months. At the same time, in some patients (about 20%), total baldness is accompanied by dystrophic nail changes in the form of longitudinal furrows, point depressions, like a thimble, dull and rough surface (sandy nails, trachyonychia). Total hair loss occurs in 0.1% of the population of the entire planet.

The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear, and therefore there is no universal scheme of examination and treatment.

The state of the nail plates with total alopecia

The main causes of total alopecia and contributing factors

  1. Congenital malformation of the epidermal leaf, resulting in hair follicles are underdeveloped or absent altogether, which manifests (most often) in early childhood poor hair growth, their fragility and loss in a short time - from several weeks to 12 months.
  2. Genetic predisposition.
  3. In the development of pathology in recent years, the role of autoimmune mechanisms, manifested in the body's immune aggression against the follicles, perceived by them as a foreign element, has been preferred. That is, an erroneous process of self-destruction, self-destruction of certain tissues occurs. As a result of this reaction, the accumulation of destroyed proteins occurs, which leads to an increase in the process and its transition to a chronic course, during which the hair covering on its own is almost never restored. The process is confirmed by the discovery of antigens to the genes of tissue compatibility, the presence of accumulations of T-lymphocytes involved in immunity reactions inside and around the growing affected hair follicles, as well as the detection of complexes circulating in the blood and fixed around the follicles and in the papillary dermal layer that contain immunoglobulin “A ". The latter damages the follicles and promotes hair loss.
  4. The presence of chronic foci of infection, contributing to the development of autoimmune aggression, as well as diffuse autoimmune systemic diseases of the connective tissue (scleroderma, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.).
  5. Acute intensive or non-intensive, but often and long (in time) recurring stressful states and mental trauma, disorders of the autonomic nervous system, accompanied by arterio-venous imbalance and impaired blood microcirculation. This leads to disruption of arterial inflow and outflow of venous blood.
  6. Endocrine diseases and disorders affecting the immune and neuro-regulatory processes in the body, the role of sex hormones: total alopecia in women develops much less frequently than in men.
  7. Gastrointestinal diseases, as a result of which the absorption of proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins and trace elements is disturbed.
  8. Influence of radioactive radiation and toxic substances.
  9. Severe infectious diseases, traumatic brain injuries, which can be important as a trigger factor for the development of autoimmune processes and vegetative-vascular disorders.

Treatment of total alopecia is a difficult task, requiring in-depth examination and an individual approach, depending on the causes identified. Usually it is possible to identify only concomitant pathology and influence the individual links of the mechanism of total baldness.

For this purpose, psychotherapeutic sedatives, tranquilizing drugs, antidepressants are prescribed, rehabilitation of identified foci of chronic infection, treatment of disorders of the digestive tract is carried out. In the diagnosis of dysfunction of the endocrine glands, corrective therapy with endocrine preparations is performed.

For disorders of the autonomic nervous system and impaired microcirculation, they are administered orally and by means of mesotherapy, iontophoresis, phonophoresis, suspensions, creams, emulsions and ointments, vasodilators, antiaggregant, nootropic, amino acid, and vitamin complex with minerals (calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, silicon) .

Local use of irritants (irritants) ointments, creams, emulsions (Dithranol, Anthralin, burdock oil, tincture of water pepper, croton oil, bodyaga) significantly improves the blood supply to the tissues.

Also used internally and externally, drugs and means of immuno-coordinating action (glucocorticosteroids, Cyclosporin "A", PUVA therapy), immunomodulators (Anthralin), hair growth stimulants (Minoxidil), physiotherapy - Darsonval currents, microcurrents, various types of massage.

A good effect was noted as a result of pulse therapy with intravenous administration of Methylprednisolone at 5 mg / kg per day for 3 days. These sessions are conducted by courses with a 1-month interval.

Unfortunately, despite the large variety of tools and techniques, the percentage of successful treatment of total alopecia remains insignificant. In most cases, one has to resort to the help of surgical methods of transplantation of healthy follicles and hair implantation.

Types of Alopecia

Taking into account the area of ​​the affected areas, trichologists distinguish:

  1. Diffuse It is not a serious threat, but leads to thinning of hair in some areas. In this case, specific foci of baldness is not observed.
  2. Subtotal alopecia. It is a type of focal alopecia, or nesting alopecia. The patient's hair falls into pieces in different parts of the hair. A fairly common disease - 5% of all calls to a dermatologist and a trichologist about problems with the scalp.
  3. Total alopecia. There is a complete loss of hair for several months. In many patients, a change in the nail plate is fixed. There is a disease in 0.1% of the inhabitants of the entire planet.
  4. Universal. This is a complete baldness of the entire hairline. In this case, there is no hair not only on the head, but also in the area of ​​eyebrows and eyelashes.

Interesting to know! In men after the 40-year-old barrier, total alopecia is recorded much more often than in women. At first, representatives of the strong half of humanity form pleshes, which smoothly turn into huge bald areas. Over time, the whole hair becomes bald.

Total alopecia got its name due to complete baldness of hair. This situation does not cause any pain, but the psycho-emotional state is destabilized, especially in women.

It is believed that in 20% of cases alopecia is inherited. If the parent started having similar problems, his sons and daughters are also at risk.


The clinical picture of total baldness suggests:

  • hair loss not only on the head, but also in the groin, under the armpits, on the brow ridges,
  • different intensity of loss of curls in each of the zones (in most cases, the hair first falls on the head, then on other areas),
  • rapid progression of the disease, when in 3-4 months you can completely bald,
  • changing the structure of the nail plate.

Usually, total alopecia develops from a focal form. Numerous balding patches come together, creating a very unpleasant picture.

At risk are people:

  • in adolescence due to an imbalance of hormones,
  • children under 1 year old
  • men after 40 years
  • women during menopause.

It is impossible to name specific reasons for complete baldness. But scientists tend to lead to it:

  • taking various antibiotics and drugs
  • strong nervous shocks and stress
  • congenital underdevelopment of hair follicles (problems begin in childhood)
  • genetic predisposition
  • autoimmune diseases, when the human body perceives certain cells by strangers and throws all its strength to fight them,
  • bad ecology (radionuclides and toxic substances),
  • disease of the gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system malfunction,
  • transfer of serious infectious diseases.

To determine the factors that provoked total alopecia, the doctor:

  1. Conducts a survey of the patient, identifying genetic predisposition, stressful situations, chronic diseases and so on.
  2. Examines the skin of the scalp.
  3. Prescribes trichogram and scraping from the dermis.
  4. Requires a blood test for hormones and complete blood count.
  5. Writes the direction to the ultrasound of the internal organs.

Attention! Only a comprehensive treatment will help improve the picture and get rid of alopecia.

Total alopecia is considered the last stage of nesting alopecia. The disease develops as follows:

  1. First, read the thinning hairs on the head of hair. Fixed hair loss above the norm (depending on the color of the strands, 80-120 hairs per day are considered the norm).
  2. Instead of hair, the patient begins to appear fluff in certain places. The bald spots are formed.
  3. There is a complete loss of hair. Sometimes the disease progresses rapidly - in 2-3 weeks the person completely loses his hair.

Very often, total alopecia occurs after focal: that is, small bald areas are interconnected, affecting a large area of ​​hair. therefore If you notice that your hair has started to clump in your hair, immediately go to the doctor, otherwise you run the risk of being left without a single hair.

It is a rather complicated process, because if the treating physician incorrectly determines the cause from the category of possible, baldness cannot be eliminated. Therefore, we strongly recommend to undergo a complete diagnosis from a competent specialist.

Treatment options:

  • antidepressants, tranquilizers and other sedatives in case a person has a strong nervous shock,
  • treatment of chronic infections
  • improvement of the work of the gastrointestinal tract organs (balanced nutrition, taking enzymes, etc.),
  • in case of a malfunction of the endocrine glands, a specialist prescribes endocrine preparations,
  • in violation of the microcirculation of the skin, the procedure of mesotherapy, iono and phonophoresis is carried out, darsonval is beaten with current, and special creams and ointments are used (Antralin, burdock oil, glucoxteroid preparations, Dithranol, etc.).

An important point! Total alopecia in small children is not treated, because medicines can adversely affect the work of the organs and systems of the baby. As a rule, balancing is carried out with the establishment of nutrition and vitamin balance.

It should be noted that despite the huge number of developed drugs and techniques, cure total alopecia is quite difficult. Therefore, we recommend that you tune in to a positive result and strictly follow the recommendations of your doctor.

In the world of modern medicine can be found rather radical way - hair transplantation. But its use depends on the donor material and the degree of neglect of the disease. There are opportunities for non-surgical procedure. But there are no guarantees that during an exacerbation of the disease, new follicles will not be eliminated by your immunity.

Means of traditional medicine for the loss of follicles are powerless, because they can not return the bulb. They can only be recommended for prophylaxis when things are getting better.

In the absence of follicles from birth, special therapy will not help. The only way to grow hair will be transplantation.

Why does pathology develop?

Alopecia is a complex disease that can occur for the following reasons:

1. Hormonal disruptions in the body (thyroid abnormalities, menopausal syndrome, pregnancy, fungal infections).

2. Skin injuries (mechanical, radiation, chemical, burn).

3. Genetic predisposition.

4. Too much testosterone production.

5. Nervous breakdowns, tension, depression, stress.

6. Bad habits and unhealthy diet.

7. Autoimmune reaction of the body. And in this case the reason for this situation is unclear. Hair growth resumes only when the irritant that caused the problem ceases to act.


This type of baldness is characterized by the fact that the curls fall on certain parts of the head: for men - anywhere, and for women - on temechke or at the temples. In contrast to nesting alopecia, only thick hair can fall out at Subtotal, so people have soft fluff in the foci of development of the disease. If you do not treat the disease, new hairs will not be able to grow stronger and thicken, becoming a full-fledged hair.

A person who began to develop subtotal alopecia, there are:

  • redness in the foci of formation,
  • abundant hair loss
  • forming a small crust with dead particles of the epidermis,
  • loosening all curls
  • clear outlines and small sizes of bald patches.

If alopecia is not treated, the sites of the appearance of lesions can be combined with each other, in which case up to 50% of the hair is affected by baldness.

It is important to know! Sometimes a patient has subtotal alopecia on the eyebrows and eyelashes, without the formation of lesions. The hair of this part of the body begins to weaken and thin. Other hair is not affected.

Among the factors that lead to subtotal alopecia, most experts are inclined towards autoimmune diseases. In the human body at the cellular level fails, and he begins to mistakenly take his own cells for foreign pests. Consequently, there is a struggle with hair follicles.

This is only a theory, so the only true it can not be considered. But to call the prerequisites that serve as the basis for failures in the body, it is quite possible.

Among them trichologists distinguish:

  • lack of vitamins
  • past infectious diseases
  • taking certain drugs, in particular, chemotherapy,
  • stresses and nervous shocks
  • hormonal disbalance,
  • improper metabolism.

Very often, subtotal alopecia in women begins during pregnancy or after childbirth. The reason is clear - an imbalance of hormones. But gynecologists recommend to undergo a full examination to exclude serious diseases in the body.

Usually, The disease can have 4 stages of development:

  1. Progressive. Foci appear on the skin of the scalp. The hair is very easy to pull out with normal twitching. Itching is possible.
  2. Stationary No additional foci occur. The skin comes back to normal, and the remaining hair is very difficult to pull out.
  3. Regressive. The bald patches begin to become covered with a gun that does not yet have a pigment. Under favorable conditions, soft hairs turn into full hair.
  4. Relapse If you do not eliminate the factors causing baldness, there is a transition to the initial stage with the appearance of new bald patches.

Treatment of the disease always begins with the diagnosis and questioning of the patient. It is necessary to completely eliminate the root cause. If you are very nervous lately, then try to calm down and drink away a course of sedation. For such people, you need to eliminate nervous work, start watching positive films or do yoga.

Treatment options:

  • hormone therapy (especially relevant for pregnant and lactating mothers, women during menopause and adolescents),
  • physiotherapy (current therapy, photochemotherapy, mesotherapy),
  • course of vitamins
  • ointments, shampoos and local action cream (minoxidil, products containing zinc pyrithione, hot pepper or mustard tincture, etc.),
  • drugs sedative nature.

An important point! With subtotal alopecia, surgical intervention (hair transplant) is not prescribed. The fact is that with the elimination of the root cause in most cases it will be possible to restore hair growth.

Very often, treatment of alopecia requires consultation of allied specialists: a dermatologist, an endocrinologist, a gastroenterologist, andrologist.


There is practically no difference between total and universal alopecia. The only thing - with the universal version of the disease, hair loss occurs throughout the body, that is, a person loses eyebrows, eyelashes and other vegetation. It is believed that universal alopecia is the last stage of baldness.

As in the earlier stages of alopecia, which we are considering, it is not possible to establish the exact cause of its occurrence, but the factors that lead to global hair loss are completely. Get ready for the following situation:

  • loss of curls can occur immediately in 1-2 weeks,
  • complete baldness can manifest at any age, even in children,
  • excessive hair loss can be triggered by a lack of vitamins, and, if you do not make up the balance, universal alopecia occurs,
  • very often all family members suffer from baldness, because the disease is inherited,
  • Autoimmune diseases, chemotherapy, poor ecology, nerve shocks and aging can lead to a global loss of hairs all over the body.

Universal alopecia may develop from a small loss of hair. Cases of rapid alopecia are rarely observed, as a rule, after a few years. Due to the incorrect determination of the factor of influence and incorrect therapy, there is a complete loss of hair.

The diagnosis of “universal alopecia” is made by a trichologist when the hair does not germinate in the bald area more than 2 months.

The disease is quite difficult to diagnose at an early stage. When strong bald patches occur, the hair follicles are depleted and cannot release new normal hair.

The disease goes through several stages:

  1. On the head small bald spots form.
  2. After some time, the "bare" islands increase in size and unite with each other.
  3. Subsequently, the head completely loses hair.
  4. Eyebrows, eyelashes, axillary hollows, pubic zone are connected to the balding process.

As in the previous treatment options for the disease, use complex therapy:

  • take inside antidepressants, immunomodulators and hormonal drugs,
  • lubricate the surface of the scalp with special creams and ointments (based on zinc pyrithione and steroids),
  • do a daily massage of the dermis of the head,
  • resorted to physiotherapy ultrasonotherapy,
  • use vitamins and dietary supplements, as well as adhere to the proper diet.

Another radical method is the transplantation of hair follicles. Surgery is resorted to in the case when none of the above methods have helped.

Clearly establish the cause of alopecia is very difficult. It is necessary to turn to a specialized trichologist, undergo a comprehensive examination and strictly adhere to the prescribed therapy. With subtotal alopecia, the chances of recovery are very high, and with universal, they are 10-15%.

In any case, if you want to have beautiful hair on your head, you will have to undergo a course of treatment when making a diagnosis of "alopecia".

Signs of pathology

If you suspect that you have alopecia, the symptoms may appear gradually and not be expressive. Although sometimes signs can be seen very clearly. Symptoms include the following:

- too slow hair growth,

- the appearance of small areas of baldness on the head,

- Complete hair loss on the head, face and other parts of the body.

In principle, there are no other signs of this disease.

Classification of pathology

Alopecia is a strange disease that causes a lot of discomfort and discomfort both physically and psychologically. Naturally, aesthetically, such a problem looks ugly. However, we first consider what types of pathology are present.

So, depending on the severity, it is possible to distinguish such types of alopecia:

- focal (that is, the hair falls out not everywhere, but only in small areas),

- universal (affects the whole body),

- total alopecia (hair falls out completely on the whole head).

As for the severity of the disease, a person can lose more than half or less than 50% of hair. In addition, it is possible to distinguish such types of pathology as cicatricial (occurs under the influence of any external damage to the skin) and non-scar. The latter, in turn, can be divided into androgenic (under the influence of hormones), diffuse and already known focal.

Diagnosis of the disease

Before treating alopecia, it is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. This can only be done by a specialist. Although the symptoms are very pronounced, they can signal more serious illnesses.

Naturally, a doctor can take blood tests and all necessary smears from you to exclude cancer or other skin lesions (or internal organs). The specialist must collect the patient's history and establish the exact cause of the development of the pathology. Only then can you assign the appropriate treatment. Otherwise, therapy will be ineffective.

Stages of development of the disease

Total alopecia or other types of this pathology go through a certain path of development. There are three stages of manifestation:

1. Progressive. It assumes too rapid hair loss, and those lesions that are formed, can merge into one.

2. Stationary. At this stage, the lesions retain their shape. That is, the lesions are no longer increasing in size.

3. Regressive. This stage involves the renewal of hair. This can be achieved more quickly if time is available for treatment. That is, a fluff appears on the head, which is gradually replaced by normal hair.

Features traditional ways of dealing with the problem

Now it is necessary to consider how to treat alopecia with the help of conservative methods of medicine. It should be noted that it can last from several months to several years. That is, the therapy will be long, and the patient will have to try to achieve the desired effect.

Hair loss (alopecia) is mostly eliminated by corticosteroids. For example, in the areas of baldness are administered various drugs with a syringe. In addition, various ointments and gels are used: "Dexamethasone", "Fluocinalon". Naturally, the patient needs to take multivitamin complexes that will provide the body with the necessary "building material".

Zinc-based preparations are very helpful. However, they must be taken with extreme caution. The fact is that large doses of zinc are effective, and they can cause various side effects. If you have alopecia (alopecia) affects a large area of ​​skin, then it is already necessary to use special irritating preparations that will stimulate hair growth. Sometimes it takes medications that can suppress an autoimmune response.

Treatment of alopecia in men, as well as in women, can be reduced to the use of hormonal drugs.

Alternative medicine to fight the disease

In order to restore the lush head of hair, try the following recipes:

1. In the autumn, dig up the burdock roots and thoroughly wash them. Next, you need to cut the raw material into small pieces and carefully dry it. Now one large spoonful of grass must be steamed with boiling water (350-500 ml). At the same time it is necessary to boil the mixture over a low heat for about 5-10 minutes. Broth must necessarily insist. Rub the mixture into the scalp daily. However, it should be stored in a cold place. For greater effect, preheat the liquid to body temperature before use. You can also make lotions from burdock broth. However, the head should be kept warm.

2. Tincture of hot pepper is also a very effective tool. Today, you can buy it at the pharmacy, but it is better to prepare it yourself. To do this, take 5 peppercorns and pour them with alcohol (vodka). Just half a liter of liquid is enough. To infuse the mixture, leave it in a dark cool place for 3 weeks. Next, the finished product is used for rubbing into the scalp. Moreover, the procedure is carried out daily.

3. Alcohol tincture of calamus roots will also help restore hair growth and prevent their loss. For the preparation of funds you need to take 250 ml of alcohol and half a pack of dry raw materials. You can buy it at any pharmacy. Infuse the mixture should be about 2 weeks. After a day, rub the tool into the scalp for several weeks. Next you should take a break. After washing the head, you can rinse your head with a decoction of marsh calamus. To prepare the mixture, pour two tablespoons of raw material with a glass of boiling water.

4. Aloe juice is very useful in baldness. The old plant is best suited for this. Lubricate the balm juice should be daily.

5. Tincture of nettle. For its preparation you will need the stems of the plant. Next, fill the raw material with alcohol or vodka. You need 22 days to insist. Rub the tool into the skin should be every day.

Features of application of cosmetic procedures for the treatment of pathology

If a man is diagnosed with alopecia of a beard, head, or other visible areas of the body, then this is unpleasant in the first place to himself. Naturally, this problem should be addressed. The situation can be remedied with the use of drugs, although this will only be a masking of the defect.

If this method suits you, then consider the activities that can be implemented independently. You can use such masking methods:

1. Wearing a wig.

2. The use of such haircuts or styling, which can hide the defect.

3. Improving blood circulation of the scalp with the help of massage.

4. Proper behavior with hair: the use of non-aggressive, and in some cases, therapeutic shampoos. In addition, you will have to abandon the use of a hair dryer, hard combs, curls.

If you have alopecia, folk treatment can have a significant positive effect.

Use of new technology

In addition to the presented means of treatment, there are new, non-standard methods of troubleshooting. For example, the method of mesotherapy for combating a disease such as alopecia is considered very interesting. The reviews are positive. However, mesotherapy is used only for androgenic, telogen and diffuse alopecia. And she helps both men and women. In addition to direct action on the scalp, mesotherapy helps to increase the body's defenses.

This procedure can be performed several times, and it is not completely painless. Naturally, you should not immediately wash your hair after it, as there is still a small part of the preparation in the skin that continues its action.

A radical method is hair transplant on the affected areas. This technique is used in the event that the disease is caused by any injury, and the traditional (or folk) method can not help.

Special preparations can simply be rubbed into the skin. It should be noted that such drugs are quite expensive, but they contribute to the awakening of dormant bulbs, nourish them.

Disease prevention

Alopecia areata is a very unpleasant disease both for the person himself and for those around him. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with it. However, you should know that you can prevent such a disease. Naturally, if it is due to a genetic predisposition, then coping with it is more difficult, but possible.

There are some preventive measures that will help maintain a thick head of hair for a long time. For example, try as little as possible to use a hairdryer and curling irons, which significantly harm the health of the hair. Hard brushes can also adversely affect the scalp. In the period of frost, it is desirable to wear a hat.

Instead of expensive shampoos you can use herbal teas and other folk remedies. Rinse the hair with such fluids, and they will become healthier, more docile, strong and beautiful. Try to eat right so that your diet is filled with all the necessary vitamins and minerals. For example, eat vegetables and fruits, eat those foods that are rich in calcium, potassium and other beneficial substances. Give up bad habits that adversely affect not only the hair, but also the general health of the body.

Frequent staining is not beneficial. Naturally, if you need it, then try to use natural paints without chemical additives. Of course, they are quite expensive, but safe. Any manipulations with hair should be gentle. Do not constantly do the perm. Hair should rest and receive nutrition. That's all. Be healthy and beautiful!

Risk group

Despite the fact that in older age the problem manifests itself more often than in the young, alopecia can affect every person. It is found in children, and even babies. Usually, children up to two years are not shown any measures to eliminate the disease, their body independently resumes hair growth.

Also, the symptoms of pathology may occur in adolescence. The puberty period is characterized by a complete reorganization of the hormonal background, which leads to dysfunctions of the follicle.

Women during pregnancy, breastfeeding or menopause are also prone to alopecia. The reason is the same - the disorder in the work of the ovaries, adrenal glands and pituitary gland, which produce hormones.

Signs of a problem

Total baldness does not happen in one day. Most often, it is preceded by the appearance of subtotal alopecia. This is a violation in which the hair falls out islets, forming bald spots. However, the progression can lead to the fact that the bare islands grow together, and gradually the vegetation on the head and other parts of the body does not remain at all.

You should be worried about the following symptoms:

  • excessive loss of strands (more than 150 pieces per day),
  • deterioration in the quality of hair, their thinning,
  • the presence of a gun in areas where normal strands grew,
  • baldness.

Hair can fall out completely in just 2-3 months, because there is no time to think and hope that everything will be decided by itself.

As soon as you notice that the curls become thin and lifeless and begin to fall out, you should immediately consult a doctor. A competent trichologist will help identify the cause of the disorder and prescribe therapy to eliminate it.

Why strands fall out

Complete hair loss may occur from the influence of various factors on the human body. Most often, such violations are a consequence of a serious failure of the internal organs and their systems. But there may be other reasons, for example:

  • Autoimmune diseases. When they occur, the immunity perceives the follicle as a foreign body, and begins to attack it.
  • Stress, nervous strain, overwork. With persistent neuropsychiatric disorders, vasospasm and tissue spasm occurs. This causes a disturbance in the blood circulation inside the hair follicle and further loss of the strands.
  • Heredity. Most often, this factor causes hair loss in men, it can be transmitted from the older generation to the younger. Genetically caused alopecia is not treatable.
  • Congenital disorders of the follicles. Such diseases are diagnosed in infants, usually in the first two years of life.
  • Not completely cured infectious and sexually transmitted diseases. In a state of neglect, pathologies such as, for example, syphilis or tuberculosis, can cause total hair loss.
  • Serious metabolic disorders. With this pathology, the cells cannot fully absorb the nutrients they receive from the outside, which leads to a weakening of the follicles and their lulling.
  • Anticancer Therapy Oncology can be treated by very aggressive methods. For example, radiation, chemotherapy or taking potent drugs. All this causes the suppression of hair follicles.
  • Excessive amounts of vitamins or lack of them. When such violations affect not only the hair, but the whole body, there are serious failures in his work.
  • Close contact with radioactive or chemical substances. It disrupts metabolic processes at the cellular level, therefore it certainly affects the density of curls.

Hair can suffer from permanent residence in very cold or hot air. Extreme temperatures cause degenerative processes in the follicles, which causes the complete loss of strands.

In any case, treatment of alopecia should begin with the elimination of the cause of its occurrence.

Treatment methods

Therapy is selected individually for each patient after studying the results of tests and research. It necessarily includes measures to eliminate aesthetic deficiencies. Also, alopecia should be treated by affecting its causes. Without this, it will not be possible to achieve the desired effect.

The complex may consist of the following procedures:

  1. Immunity correction. To do this, the patient is prescribed immunomodulatory drugs, vitamin supplements, his diet is adjusted. Meat and dairy products, vegetables and fruits are introduced into it.
  2. Normalization of hormonal background. Hormonal agents are selected according to age and sex.
  3. Elimination of neuropsychiatric disorders. It is performed by taking tranquilizers, nootropic drugs, antidepressants and sedatives made from vegetable raw materials.
  4. Digestion recovery. It is necessary for the rapid and complete assimilation of all components that enter the body with food.
  5. Reception of the biologically active additives containing vitamins A, E, D, groups B, iron, zinc, zinc, selenium, calcium. Elements help to strengthen the roots and restore normal follicle activity.
  6. Physiotherapy. Good results are obtained by using the “Darsonval” apparatus, massage with drugs, and exposure to the skin by shock.
  7. Surgical intervention. In the case of total alopecia, healthy follicles are transplanted from the donor.

To eliminate alopecia, special creams and ointments are used, which act directly on the dermis. Most often, they contain vitamins, minerals and other active substances.

Also, funds are aimed at dilating the blood vessels and accelerating blood circulation, which allows useful components to penetrate the follicles more quickly.

Folk remedies

Judging by the reviews trichologists, traditional medicine can also be used in the treatment of alopecia. However, please note that masks and wraps are not used as the main elements of therapy. They can only supplement the complex, but not completely replace it.

Such follicles can awaken the follicles:

  • castor and burdock oil,
  • pepper tinctures,
  • mustard powder,
  • yeast,
  • onion and garlic juice,
  • alcohol-containing products.

All these components have irritating properties, but they cannot be used in their pure form. This may result in a burn of the dermis.

Means are perfectly combined with eggs, sour cream, kefir, honey and base oils. Additional ingredients reduce the aggressiveness of the masks and help saturate the follicles with regenerating substances.

Trichological practice proves that in most cases, a comprehensive and competent treatment of alopecia gives positive results. Of course, the hair does not begin to grow immediately, for this you need to pass more than one course. You can even awaken those follicles that have been sleeping for several years. In childhood, the body independently resumes their normal functioning.

However, there are cases when it is very difficult or even impossible to achieve positive results. If the predisposition to baldness lies in the human genetic code, it is unrealistic to change it. In such situations, even hair transplantation does not give the desired effect, the bulbs simply do not survive.

Also, pathology can worsen with the smallest conditions favorable for its development, therefore constantly need to monitor their health.

Draw conclusions

Complete baldness is a very unpleasant disease. Despite the fact that it does not cause pain, the patient is experiencing severe psychological discomfort. However, modern medicine is able to eliminate most of the factors leading to the occurrence of a violation.

In time, seek professional help from a doctor, follow all of his prescriptions, and you will grow a new healthy hair.

Useful videos

Types of baldness: gnezdny, androgenic (androgenetic), cicatricial, focal, diffuse, total alopecia.

How nerves affect hair - total psychogenic alopecia.

Causes of Alopecia

Often the centers of baldness occupy significant areas of the head, acquiring a malignant course. Depending on the area of ​​the affected area, this type of baldness is called universal or total.

The main reason for the development of the disease is considered an autoimmune process aimed at young cells of the hair follicle. The term "autoimmune" means the destruction of healthy cells by their own immunity, which for various reasons begins to consider them strangers. Such a mechanism is observed in many systemic diseases (multiple sclerosis, rheumatism, systemic lupus erythematosus, myasthenia gravis, and others).

On cell surface follicle there are special proteins by which the immune system recognizes "friends" and "enemies". A healthy body easily identifies outsiders. But with certain violations of the immune cells are wrong, resulting in the destruction of the cells of their own body.

There are other reasons for the development of the disease. Usually they complement the autoimmune factor, so there is no single reason for the occurrence of total baldness.

  • Hereditary factor. It consists in the early formation of various problems in the hair follicles, especially those susceptible to the autoimmune process, even if the person has not suffered from any characteristic pathologies. This is especially true of the female. In the case of total family alopecia, women are ill more often than men.
  • Rebalancing between female and male sex hormones. If the amount of androgens in the female body becomes greater than normal, then the mechanisms characteristic of male sex hormones are triggered. Hair growth stops or slows down, hair follicles are destroyed.
  • Predisposition to allergic reactions. There is a lot in common between allergy and autoimmune process. In both cases, an excessive immune response occurs to the appearance of an irritant in the body. For example, if a woman suffers from allergic dermatitis, the risk of the appearance of total alopecia increases several times.
  • Some infectious chronic and endocrine diseases affecting the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland.

Common symptoms of the disease

Total alopecia can affect all the hair on the head, eyebrows and eyelashes. The disease has a characteristic course. Most of the hair falls out very quickly - literally in 2-3 months. Hair loss occurs in a different order. For example, lashes may fall out first, then hair on the head, or vice versa.

Exist accelerating factors disease development:

frequent washing of hair with very hot water

  • the use of gels and hair styling products,
  • wrong mascara for eyebrows and eyelashes.

Often baldness is accompanied by additional symptoms:

  • weakness,
  • headache,
  • fatigue
  • fever.

In some patients (about 20%), the disease is accompanied by dystrophic changes of the nail plate in the form of pinholes, longitudinal furrows, and a rough and dull surface.

Sometimes the disease passes by itselfwithout external intervention. As a rule, in such cases, the hair is slowly restored over several years. First, eyelashes and eyebrows begin to grow, then hair, which is often not able to be updated until the end.

Diagnostic measures

First of all, an experienced trichologist sends the patient to the following laboratory tests:

  • general and biochemical blood test,
  • hormonal status analysis,
  • immunogram (assessment of the immune system),
  • Trichogram (study of the hair roots, scalp)
  • skin biopsy (according to indications).

According to the results of laboratory and instrumental examinations, consultation of doctors of other specialties (gynecologist, endocrinologist, neurologist) may be appointed. And only after all the manipulations and consultations adequate treatment is selected.

Preventive measures

The most important thing in preventing alopecia is this is a healthy lifestyle. These include:

  • systematic health monitoring,
  • proper nutrition
  • rejection of bad habits,
  • the use of high-quality hair care products.

Only with the right attitude to your health can you avoid such a problem as extensive baldness.

Definition of alopecia

Alopecia is called hair loss, and the total shape is due to complete baldness of the head and other parts of the body, that is, eyebrows, eyelashes, upper, lower extremities and the pubic zone. Pathology tends to progress rapidly, namely maximum hair loss occurs within 2-3 months with the formation of large areas of baldness, merging among themselves. The disease most often affects the male population after the age of 40 years.

In women, complete hair loss is observed much less frequently and is characterized by the presence of a serious cause threatening the development of more global problems than a visual deficiency. In some cases, the disease is successfully treatable, but before the appearance of new hair growth, quality of life is reduced.

With total alopecia, there are always previous manifestations of baldness of several types. Almost always, total alopecia develops after a pronounced focal form. Small fragments of hair loss are gradually connected with each other, forming extensive zones. The sooner manifestations of alopecia are detected and measures taken to eliminate it, the more likely the successful treatment and more favorable outcome of the disease will be. The most vulnerable are adolescents in puberty, women during menopause, men over 40 and children up to a year.

Although, as for children, in 98% of cases, treatment is not prescribed, because the body itself restores normal hair growth.

Principles of diagnosis

To establish the true cause of total alopecia and prescribe a complex of therapeutic measures for successful elimination of the problem, the trichologist adheres to a specific plan, that is:

  • ascertains the most important symptom of total alopecia by visual inspection of the scale of lesion of hair,
  • interviews the patient about the presence of chronic pathologies, about the use of drugs, the specifics of work, lifestyle,
  • ascertain genetic predisposition or hereditary factor, that is, identical cases of various forms of alopecia in the family, in blood relatives,
  • identifies associated symptoms,
  • A number of laboratory, instrumental and functional examinations (skin scraping, immunogram, ultrasound of the internal organs, trichogram, general blood and urine tests, blood for thyroid hormones and sex hormones) are assigned to confirm or differentiate the diagnosis,
  • In most cases, treatment of total alopecia takes place with the help of consultations of related specialists such as the therapist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, andrologist, pediatrician, gastroenterologist, dermatologist.
An integrated approach to the problem of total baldness with the involvement of all the necessary specialists almost always gives a positive result in the treatment of nesting (focal) alopecia and prevents the development and progression of the total type of pathology.

Methods and methods for the treatment of total hair lesions

However, improving trophism and, consequently, increased susceptibility to the absorption of certain drugs, sometimes gives results.

Universal alopecia (total) is not always immediately treatable, and in some cases may be incurable. Only a competent specialist can determine the type and cause of total damage to the scalp.Self-treatment and long neglect of the manifestations of alopecia greatly aggravates the pathological process, and in some cases makes it irreversible.

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Signs and main causes of total alopecia

Total alopecia is considered severe focal (nest) alopecia. Hair falls on the face and head, in the groin and pubic area, in the armpits, on the limbs. Often there is a loss of eyelashes and eyebrows. This form of the disease is called universal. If hair loss is fast, this is a bad sign.

The disease is dangerous that very growing fast. Fully bald can be done in a matter of months. In addition, it is extremely difficult to identify with absolute accuracy the true cause of total alopecia.

The main reasons for complete baldness

What provokes hair loss? Doctors have not yet come to a consensus. Most agree that alopecia causes a number of factors (several at once or one dominant):

  • it's all my fault genetics - so many people think. They explain the total alopecia of hereditary predisposition,
  • hair follicle defect - their underdevelopment or lack of it at all. The problem manifests itself already in the first year of a child’s life. Hair grows badly, but quickly break down and fall out,
  • the main role in baldness is played autoimmune mechanisms - This version is popular with doctors. Due to failures in the immune system, the body shows aggression to the hair follicles. The cells see them as "outsiders" and, attacking, destroy the bulbs. As a result, hair loss begins
  • the scourge of modern society is abundance stressful situations, mental trauma and nervous system disorders. All this complicates the process of normal blood circulation around the hair follicles,
  • violations and disruptions in the hormonal system, endocrine diseases. Problems with the thyroid and adrenal glands affect the intensity of hair loss,
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and strict diets. As a result of diseases and nutritional restrictions, proteins, vitamins, trace elements, amino acids and minerals cannot be fully absorbed. Hair follicles do not receive the necessary nutrition, hair begins to fall out,
  • environmental problems in the area of ​​residence, exposure to toxic drugs, radioactive radiation, including treatment with anti-tumor agents,
  • influence fungal and infectious diseases, traumatic brain injury.

Treatment differences

Total male pattern baldness differs from a similar disease in women and childhood alopecia by some symptoms, the dynamics of the process and the consequences.

But diagnostics is carried out according to a similar pattern:

  1. examine the patient's complaints, find out whether this problem has long been troubling, if there have been any cases of baldness in other family members
  2. to interview the patient about all the diseases he had suffered, including chronic ones, about the medications taken,
  3. to assess by examining the condition of the hair and skin of the head, the type and stage of alopecia.

Do not do without integrated surveys:

  • blood test - general, biochemical, hormones,
  • biopsy of the skin,
  • immunograms - studies of the state of the immune system,
  • trichoscopy - detailed diagnosis of hair and scalp.

The doctor trichologist who deals with the treatment of alopecia can refer the patient for consultation to other specialists - an endocrinologist, a neurologist, a psychologist, a gynecologist. Considering their verdict, the trichologist prescribes a course of treatment for the patient.

Men more often of women get sick total alopecia. The stronger sex is more genetically predisposed to baldness, which is provoked by the developmental defects of hair follicles.

Having determined the cause of the disease, the doctor prescribes the necessary treatments and medications. The course of treatment will always be individualized depending on the factors that caused the disease, the stage of development and the general condition of the patient.

How to treat total alopecia:

  1. For violations in the immune system will require correction of its work - with the help of immunomodulators and glucocorticosteroids. Sometimes it is necessary to administer intravenous prednisone. In addition to medications, vitamin complexes are prescribed.
  2. The use of external drugs stimulate hair growth. Minoxidil (foam or spray) is recognized as an effective medicine. Also used ointments, dilating vessels to enhance blood flow to the hair follicles and scalp. You can do rubbing with an irritating effect - onion juice, mustard, tincture of hot peppers.
  3. Popular and physiotherapeutic procedures. Prescribe massage (can be manual and vacuum, with the use of an electric brush), darsonvalization (exposure to high-frequency impulse currents), mesotherapy (injection of small doses of drugs), iontophoresis, cryotherapy.
  4. Therapy of gastrointestinal diseases is necessary for the body to properly assimilate dietary fiber and trace elements. We'll have to revise their eating habits and adjust their diet. Emphasis is placed on protein foods containing selenium, iron, zinc. Perhaps the doctor will also recommend dietary supplements.
  5. Often psychotherapeutic correction is required. The sedative effects are achieved by using nootropic and sedative drugs, tranquilizers and antidepressants.
  6. Transplantation is prescribed when other methods no longer help. If alopecia is running, then surgery will be required. Follicles from the back of the head and temples are transplanted to bald areas of the head.

Often hair among women drop out due to an excess in the body of male sex hormones. Hormonal disorders occur during menopause or childbirth, with problems with the thyroid gland, ovarian pathologies.

Mistakes in the care of your hair can also trigger the development of baldness. Deliverance women from total alopecia is to:

  • restoration of normal hormonal levels,
  • cure of the disease that caused baldness and cessation of medication, due to which the loss of hair began,
  • a balanced diet with enough protein, trace elements and vitamins,
  • moving to a new place of residence, if the problem is caused by a poor environment,
  • taking immunomodulators, nootropic and sedative drugs,
  • stimulation of the growth of hair onions by external means,
  • the use of physiotherapy - ozone therapy, massage, low-frequency currents, Darsonval apparatus, ultraviolet radiation and paraffin therapy,
  • treatment course photochemotherapy.

What kind the reasons cause total alopecia in children:

  1. hereditary factors
  2. endocrine and autoimmune system pathologies,
  3. infectious diseases
  4. Nervous shocks
  5. allergic reactions
  6. burns (chemical and thermal),
  7. effects of taking drugs to fight cancer.

It is important that treatment of the child was carried out in a complex, combined physical therapy with a course of medications, fortifying drugs, topical medications. Parents need to take care of good nutrition of the child and protect him from stressful situations.

Hormone therapy It may be necessary, but it must be treated carefully. To this method resort in the started situations. Especially, given that children often after falling out after a while, the hair begins to grow themselves.

If a teenager suffers from alopecia, you will need the help of a psychologist. Indeed, at this age, problems with appearance can lead to depression and can not do without psycho-emotional correction.

Total alopecia should be treated both for adults and children. AND no amateur! Too different causes cause hair loss. Only by finding out exactly what caused baldness, you can decide on the course of further treatment. And be patient. Sometimes it takes a long time to restore hair.

Causes of hair loss in men and women:

Watch the video: Hair Loss in Patches. Symptoms, Causes & Treatment (December 2019).